By clarifying the term emotional mobilization, we mean the knowledge and the awareness of toddlers with typical (normal) development towards disability, in order to achieve the reduction of prejudice and negative stereotypes. So, obtaining the effective inclusion and also creating a climate that encourages positive interaction between them. Consequently, the aim of this research is the emotional mobilization and conversion of the views of children with typical development towards disability. These children study at section kindergartens general education and integration classes.
The methodology which used is action research organized in two components: 1) an experimental group and a control group, 2) a variable: the narration appropriately selected folktales, which is the cause and exists in the experimental group, but absent in form and substance from the control group. We used a weighted reliable psychometric tool (with axes questions-interviews) to measure attitudes and perceptions of young children towards disability. The research’s sample was 120 toddlers.
In conclusion, from the statistical analysis of the survey’s data we found clearly the positive catalytic effect of the variable (narration) which used in children with typical development. Therefore, these children changed their perception regarding the acceptance and inclusion of children with disabilities and special education needs in the school and in the wider social environment, being aware of the problems and characteristics and the removal of fear and prejudice with respect towards the face these children.
Mental retardation is largely understood to be the single largest neuropsychiatric disorder in every civilized society affecting 2.5-3.0% of the total population (Kaur & Singh, 2010). Data obtained from various sources and statistics provided by the National Institute for Mentally Handicapped (NIMH) indicate that the prevalence rate of mental retardation in India is about 20 per 1000 in the general population i.e., around 2%, and of this one fourth suffer from severe retardation. According to the National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO), among the general population, the incidence of mental retardation is 3.1% in rural areas and 0.9% in urban areas. In India an average of 2.5% children are mild or moderately retarded and 0.5% are severely retarded. Under the age of 14 there are about 7.5 million retarded children in India and the prevalence of developmental disabilities and delays is about 30 per 1000 (Panda, 1999). Another significant mental disorder occurring in childhood is Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Current estimates suggest that ADHD is present throughout the world in about 1-5% of the population. It is a chronic disorder with 30 to 50 percent of those individuals diagnosed in childhood continuing to have symptoms into adulthood (Silver, 1992). In India, prevalence of ADHD is 0.02% (Aravind Pillai et al, 2008). However higher rates are estimated, as 64.9% of the referrals are from pediatricians.
Ms. Georgitta J.Valiyamattam,
Research Scholar (Ph.D), Dept.of Psychology and Parapsychology,
Andhra University, Visakhapatnam
Introduction: In each education system especially education of children with intellectual disability, school achievement and social adjustment has a basic importance. It seems that group activities in their teaching programs can be affective on their school achievement and social adjustment. This study has been conducted to compare the effect of cooperative teaching and direct instruction methods on school achievement and social adjustment in the fourth grade primary school students with intellectual disability in Gonabad. Method: In this semi-experimental study, 4 classes of mentally retarded students of the fourth grade in primary school students (28 students) and from exceptional education schools, 2 classes for case group and other 2 classes for control group were assigned randomly with post-test and pre-test and control group design. At first, the school achievement questionnaire and Vineland social maturity test were executed as a pre-test in both groups. Afterwards, each case and control groups were taught as cooperative method and direct instruction, respectively for 10-45minute sessions. After teaching a post-test using the questionnaires were taken from both groups. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS-16 software program and the independent T-test- for differences between the means.
Results: The results showed that there was a meaningful difference between means of school achievement (P<0.01) and social adjustment (P<0.01) in the experimental and control groups.
Discussion or Conclusion: According to the results, cooperative teaching method compared with direct instruction had a significant effect on school achievement and social adjustment of mentally retarded students. Thus, it is recommended to use cooperative teaching in educational programs of students with intellectual disability.