Titre 1-23

1.About warning

Article 1-23

To return to the concept of auto-determination, as a psychoanalyst, you are immediately caught up in « deep questioning » because already, with normal cognitive capacity and even with giftedness, people don't know what they want, or think they want things and want other things, or think they don't want what they actually want. The gap between the different instances being so wide that the winds, even the blizzards from the depths of the unconscious reach the poor cognitive surface of the patient trying to alert the therapist that, like Buridan's donkey, he is dying of hunger, torn as he is between opposed desires and needs.


Keywords: Autod-etermination, incoherence, educator, autonomy, supervision
Article 1 2-23

Giuliana Galli-Carminati 1Federico Carminati 2

1 MD, PhD, psychiatrist, psychotherapist FMH, Assistant Professor at Seoul University (Bundang Hospital), member of the Charles Baudouin Institute of Psychoanalysis, founder and didactician of the International Society of Multidisciplinary Psychoanalysis, former Privat-Docent and lecturer at the University of Geneva.

2 Physicist, member of the Charles Baudouin Institute of Psychoanalysis, didactician of the International Society of Multidisciplinary Psychoanalysis.

 183 KB
Language: French
Titre 2-23

2. An educator's eye on epileptic signs that don't let themselves be seen

Article 2-23

This research specifically addresses the subtle epileptic signs that can occur in people with ASD, Autism Spectrum Disorder. ASD is characterized by developmental disorders, learning difficulties and behavioral alterations.

The study highlights the importance of thorough clinical observations to detect these subtle epileptic signs, which can sometimes go unnoticed. Recognition of these signs is essential for early diagnosis and treatment of epilepsy in people with ASD.

Furthermore, this research underlines the importance of careful medical follow-up and close collaboration with those who support the individual in an institution, such as specialist educators and healthcare professionals. These partners play a key role in the early identification of medical abnormalities associated with ASD, including subtle epileptic problems.

Early detection and appropriate management of epileptic signs are essential to providing appropriate care and improving quality of life for people with this syndrome. This information provides valuable leads for researchers, clinicians, and care providers to better understand and treat the medical aspects of ASD.

Keywords: Subtile epileptic signs, ASD, Clinical observations, Institutional caregivers, Medical  abnomalities
Article 2 2-23

Alexandre Buttex 

aster's degree in education, formator, specialized educator, socio-educator at the EPI Thonex..


 139 KB
Language: French
Titre 3-23

3. Epidemiological study of adolescent depression worldwide over the last fifty years

Article 3-23

Over the past fifty years, the prevalence of depressive illness among adolescents has significantly increased. This increase has been linear in the United States and exponential worldwide. Collective experiences such as pandemics, economic crises, wars, and climate change are powerful factors contributing to mental distress among adolescents. The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact, with up to a quarter of young people worldwide exhibiting high levels of depression symptoms. Economic crises also have a detrimental effect on the mental health of adolescents, as do wars and climate change. Individual factors such as genetic burden, poor living conditions, inappropriate use of new technologies, and traumatic experiences are also linked to depression in adolescents. Family factors, including parental depression, conflictual relationships, and aggression, are predisposing factors as well. Educational and socio-economic factors, such as stress related to the education system, low income, and lack of social support, can also contribute to adolescent depression. In conclusion, there are numerous individual and collective factors that influence the development of depression among adolescents.

Keywords: Depressive illness, adolescents, prevalence, symptoms, family factors, new technologies
Article 3 2-23
Muñoz David Orihuela
Student Matura work completed at the Collège Voltaire, Geneva 
Coaching teacher Christophe Ebener

 617 KB
Language: French
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