Titre 1-21

1. Developmental trajectories and continuum of functioning in people with autism

Article 1-21

Our goal was to clarify the existence of an "autistic continuum", that is to say a common functioning base for all people with autism. If there is indeed such a continuum, then it authorises to take into account the testimonies of autistic people to explain or better understand the behaviour of the most affected people, who are generally without language (non verbales). This is what this article seeks to show by presenting and then reinterpreting the data that have made it possible to trace the developmental trajectories of certain autistic signs that are part of the classic symptomatology of autism.

From three studies, selected because they were published less than a decade ago and based on several tens of individuals, we have constructed the developmental trajectories of certain registers of skills classically deficient in autism (communication, socialisation, social interactions, etc.). Comparisons are proposed between differentiated autistic profiles, from severe autistic syndrome with associated impairment to so-called "high functioning autism". These developmental trajectories do indeed differ according to the register considered and the severity of the syndrome. Most often, they highlight two to three groups of individuals who are differentiated by their speed of development, whatever the autistic sign or criterion taken into account. The question raised here is whether these groups are really disjointed or whether there is a continuum of functioning that allows one to move from one to the other in a continuous manner. The highlighting of continuums between groups of subjects evolving at different speeds confirms the existence of a clinical semiology common to the entire autism spectrum. The modalities of expression of this clinical semiology would intensify with the severity of the syndrome. These results lead us to question the origin of the differences in rhythm reflected in the developmental trajectories. Indeed, children with a severe syndrome associated with a severe intellectual disability remain confined to the first levels of development. Although adapted care programmes make it possible to improve their adaptive functioning on a daily basis, their cognitive abilities seem to have crystallised in a deficit mode, which is difficult to change. Access to language seems to have a determining influence on developmental trajectories. Thus, the developmental trajectories of the two groups of children (deficient and non-deficient) sometimes start at almost the same stage, follow each other until the age of eight, and then differ more and more as time goes by, due to the presence of children in one group who experience an acceleration of their development from a late access to language. These results also provide a better understanding of the concept of ASD adopted in the DSM-5.

Keywords: Autism ; Autistic continuum ; Developmental trajectories ; Communication ; Social interactions
Article 1 2-21
Filem Jomago 1 , Pascale Planche 2
1 Auteur de « A quoi rêvent les autistes ? » et de « Autistes : mode d’emploi », 15 rue Marcel Philippe, 60100 Creil, France. filem.jomago@laposte.net – Tél. 0610832754 (correspondant)
2 Professeur de Psychologie cognitive du développement, Université de Brest, UFR Lettres et Sciences Humaines, 20 rue Duquesne, 29238, Brest, CEDEX 3. Laboratoire CREAD (EA 3875).
Download the flyer Filem Jomago
 489 KB
Language: French
Titre 2-21

2. Type of Birth effects on behavioural problems among intellectual disable children. A Cohort study in Rajahmundry.

Article 2-21

This study identifies the type of birth incidence and disabled children's behavioural problems (i.e., hyperactivity, Lethargy, Stereotypical, Irritability behaviours) during the 6-15 years age. The objectives of the study were to explore the Birth effects on behavioural problems among mild intellectually disabled children, to find out the significant difference between demographical variables on Behavioural problems among mild intellectually disabled children, to understand and minimizing behavioural problems among mild intellectually disabled children.

Using the Cohort Study. The participants for the present study included children diagnosed with mild intellectual disability as per the diagnostic criteria of DSM-IV TR. These children attend special schools across north coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh. The age ranged from 6-15 years, boys included 272 and girls included 228. The total sample consisted of 500 mild intellectually disabled children. We examine whether Normal birth and differs from Pre-mature birth intellectual disable and whether it converges with or diverges from them over time. Present study identified behavioural problems associations between pre- mature birth and normal birth. Present study show that Pre-mature birth intellectual disable children exhibit more behaviour problems than normal birth type intellectual disables at age of 5 years onwards, and their trajectories from ages 3 to 12 do not converge. Rather, disabled children, particularly pre-mature show increasing Lethargy, stereotype behaviour problems, hyperactivity, over time.

Keywords: Mild intellectually disabled children ; hyperactivity ; lethargy ; stereotypical ; irritability ; pre-mature birth
Article 2 2-21

Hepsiba Netala 1  , Subhashini Akurathi 2 , MVR Raju 3
Department of Psychology, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam
1 Research Scholar, Department of Psychology, Andhra University.
2 Research Scholar, Department of Psychology, Andhra University.

3 Senior Professor, Department of Psychology, Andhra University.

 226 KB
Language: English
Titre 3-21

3. Does it hurt ?

Article 3-21

Open reflections on the issue of pain for a population with Intellectual Disability and/or Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

As long as we are in pain we are alive! This is the positive side of pain, which is therefore an integral part of the life of all living beings, animals at least. Yet it is experienced very differently by each creature, and in human beings the opportunity to talk about it is as important as the pain itself. It is indeed by communicating that one can obtain help and possibly relief, physical and/or psychological. For people who have difficulty with verbalization, because they do not yet have the language or because it is poorly developed, the pain may be even greater because there is no relief possible. We suffer in silence… but we revolt anyway and we may then become aggressive. This is the case for all, besides, but it is even more often observed in people with intellectual disability or autism spectrum disorder, for whom understanding how they feel and the likelihood of possible relief is sometimes difficult. The pain of living can then affect everyone ... hoping that it lasts only a moment.

Keywords: Intellectual disability ; autism ; pain ; suffering ; communication ; addiction ; happiness
Article 3 2-21
Rachel Lehotkay, PhD Doctor in psychology
Specialist in psychotherapy FSP, certified zootherapist ASZ, Society for Human-Animal Relationship Research & Education - SHARRE, info@sharre.ch
Rue Vert 2, 1205 Genève, Suisse  
 283 KB
Language: French
Titre 4-21

4. Why me ?

Article 4-21

A story about difference through the resonance of a professional story with personal memories.

Two fictional stories, but inspired by various people, situations and institutions, intersect; one professional and one private, around the difference, the situation of disability, covering various themes such as the development of the child, schooling, the impact on family life, the mourning of "normality" etc. The story brings into play the way in which an educator perceives the accompaniment of an adolescent, in a situation of physical disability, with emotional fragility, interwoven with the memories of life around her daughter, diagnosed with a psychological illness.

Keywords: Intellectual disability; integrative Zootherapy; residential care; child; adolescent; normality; difference
Article 4 2-21
Regula Fehr is currently working in Switzerland as a specialised educator and is involved in residential homes for children and adolescents with her concept of Integrative Zootherapy. She is polyvalent in the social field: studies of psychology, social work and various therapeutic approaches such as systemic, kinesiology, bio-psycho-genealogy, group work, zootherapy and in multidisciplinary psychoanalytical training. In parallel, she has an active life in family, work and associations, and her path has crossed various places such as a parent-child reception, a cinema association, conferences on parenting, eco-construction and rehabilitation, non-violent communication, a zootherapy association etc. She has worked in the field of asylum refugees, child protection, in children's and teenagers' homes, and in personal support.
 235 KB
Language: French
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