This study serves to explore the history and innovations of autism and the programs available to people with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The purpose of this paper is to exploit the lack of attention autism has received worldwide and to display the need for better diagnostic, educational, and treatment programs. A description of the disease, current definitions and typologies, and past stigmatization will be discussed.
Additionally, this study will highlight various speculations presented by researchers over the past twenty years. As epigenetics are a new innovation in the world of health, environmental epigenetics will be discussed as possible contributing factors to ASD.
Case studies and information about the effects autism has on parents, families, and societies are included. The latter portion of this study will analyse systems and programs in Switzerland and the United States. Programs implemented in India, Spain, and Africa will be discussed as well. Governments must address autism as a priority by working to decrease stigmatization, increase education and training for physicians, enhance diagnostic centers, and drastically reshape education programs for children with autism.
The George Washington University, International Affairs, Global Public Health
My name is Savannah and I am a twenty one year old college student in the United States. I study at the George Washington University in Washington, DC. where my major is international development and my minor is global public health. Along with going to school I work at the Peace Corps in the Office of Health Services, I volunteer at the International Red Cross, and I am a fellow for an organization that works towards international and domestic poverty relief.
Last semester I studied abroad in Switzerland. During my five months studying abroad I wrote a research paper on a topic I think is very important. The topic is autism. My hope is that this paper will inform those who are uniformed and start discussion on this topic.
Family therapy that I will describe is developing around an issue of empowerment in a woman of 35 years, which I call Merline, presenting mild mental retardation and having a very close relationship with his mother. Merline family comes from a disadvantaged environment with low incomes and experiencing an important social isolation, the exchanges with entourages being excessively poor.
Cohabitation with parents is usual for adults with mental retardation. So the separation of the family, which is common during the evolution from adolescence to young adulthood can be experienced as an extremely difficult way in family life. Therefore, many adults with mental retardation live with their parents until the death of the latter with absence or limitation of empowerment process. Parents could not see their child "adult" and sometimes they continued to consider him/her even as a little child, incapable of living outside the parental sphere. I'll present a clinical situation where systemic therapy helped a woman with mental retardation to individualize and empower without it being perceived as a threat for the affective relationship.
Research was designed to study the influence of cognitive behaviour therapy on anger and frustration management among parents of severely intellectual disabled.
With the help of quasi-experimental research Picture Frustration Study by Pareek et.al (1968) was administered to the sample for pre-post sessions. Cognitive behaviour therapy implemented to manage the frustration level and sessions were given twice a week for ½ month. Each CBT session was of 45 minutes. Finding based on the analysis revealed that after frustration management training programme parents of everely intellectual impaired obtained less mean scores on categories like E', E, I and score increased on M, e, and i categories. Their GCR is also increased significantly. It reveals improved attitudes of parents towards their child. It confirms the role of CBT in improvement of tolerance level.